I have noticed while learning and teaching Emacs that there are some words Emacs people use in ways that are not immediately obvious to non-Emacs people. Here’s a short glossary I constructed for my own personal use.
You’re not meant to read this document from top to bottom. Just look up whatever weird terminology is confusing you. I’m also going to link to this document in other articles whenever I use these words.
An open document. A buffer is a bunch of characters, stored in primary memory11 also known, somewhat sloppily, as RAM and accessible in Emacs. It’s important to note that while a buffer does not have to correspond to a file on disk22 pretty much anything you see on screen in Emacs is displayed in a buffer., it can always be treated as if it were: it can be modified, saved, reverted and so on. See also scratch buffer.
Font. As in the combination of font family, font weight, font variant, text colour and so on. The way characters appear on screen.
When Emacs starts in a graphical environment33 The way you should use Emacs! it will open up a window in your operating system. This window is called a frame by Emacs. So what you normally refer to as windows are frames in Emacs-speak. To make matters worse, window means something entirely different in Emacs!
The dominating behaviour of Emacs is determined by the major mode. I use the determinate article44 “the” because there can only be a single major mode active in a buffer. When editing files, the major mode is frequently determined by the file type: C source code uses CC mode, Org files uses Org mode, directories use Dired mode, the built-in help files uses Help mode, pdf files use docview mode, and so on.
Emacs major modes are somewhat similar to what modern ide tools call “perspectives”.
The major mode can often be extensively configured to suit your preferences. Additional major modes can be installed or created by yourself. You can define “derived” major modes which inherit most of their behaviour from their parent mode.
The keyboards which were used to develop Emacs had a key called
meta. This is
no longer present on modern keyboards, but common alternatives that tend to work
as a meta key are
alt. So whenever you see a key combination like
M-x, i.e. “
x”, you can attempt holding down
alt and tapping
esc and then tapping
Minor modes are probably what most people intuitively think of when they hear about “Emacs modes”. Minor modes are like small suites of related functionalities (keyboard shortcuts, extra text highlighting, editing commands, information displays, spell checkers, fuzzy finders, and so on) which can be toggled on or off at will.
Minor modes can be either global (which means they are toggled on or off simultaneously for all open s) or local (which means that if you turn them on for one buffer, they remain turned off in all other buffers.)
A new, blank document. What other applications call “create new document”, Emacs
people call “open scratch buffer”. You get a new scratch buffer by pressing
b66 to switch to a different buffer and then typing in a buffer name that
does not correspond to any currently open file.
Emacs started using the word window before its current meaning became popular. When Emacs talks about windows, it is referring to its own internal windows, which otherwise might more intuitively be described as “panes” or “views”. See also frame, for what you might know as a window.